Making Bootstrap work with the WordPress Block Editor

tl;dr: You need to load Bootstrap’s CSS in the 'wp_enqueue_scripts' hook with a priority lower than 10.

Where do I begin with this one? First, some foundational details: I’m old school. I’ve been a professional web developer/designer since 1996. I’ve embraced new technologies as they come along, but I tend to bristle at things that are either a) not an open standard or b) need to be compiled.

I refused to use Flash. In the end I was proved right, as open web technologies supplanted it. Flash is dead, and the open web is not. I still refuse to use CSS preprocessors for a similar reason. They’re a non-standard workaround to limitations in the current standard. They fragment the landscape instead of pushing the standard forward. And as CSS variables have gained wide browser support, preprocessors are beginning to look as pointless as Flash.

Now the thing I hate is npm — or any similar tech that requires me to run shell scripts and compile anything. I’ve long since embraced server-side scripting, using open source libraries like jQuery, and even using a pre-built CMS (or CMS-ish system) like WordPress. (Yes, for many years I rolled my own CMSes.) The bottom line for me is, if it’s code I can download simply and treat as a “black box,” fine. But if it’s something I need to get my hands dirty in, I shouldn’t need anything to work with it but a text editor.

All of that to say, I am having a bit of a time with where things are going these days with Gutenberg, a.k.a. the WordPress Block Editor. And I haven’t exactly been quiet about it here.

This week I needed to extend the Block Editor by creating a carousel/slideshow block. Yep, I’ve rolled my own with these for many years as well, but this time around I decided I wanted to work with something pre-built, so I settled on the one in Bootstrap. I don’t really need all of Bootstrap (although I suspect over time I will need more of it), but customizing it requires using npm, so I decided to go ahead and include the entire pre-compiled package in my theme.

That’s when the problems began.

Oh, the carousel works great! But I spent a bunch of time yesterday trying to figure out why the custom background color and fonts defined in my theme.json file were being ignored… especially since they’re right there in the inline CSS inside the <head> of every page.

Don’t even get me started on inline CSS, or the way so many people in the industry seem to worship PageSpeed Insights. Once again we’re skating to where the puck is, instead of where it’s going, and to stretch the analogy to the limit, we’re melting all of the ice in front of it too. This is not the way to move web development forward intelligently.

Ah-hem.

Eventually I worked out what’s happening. WordPress, historically, was designed to allow you to define dependencies, so you could load CSS and JavaScript in a logical manner. Gutenberg/Block Editor throws all of this out the window with this inline CSS. Certain “critical” inline CSS for the Block Editor gets loaded immediately regardless of the dependencies you put into wp_enqueue_style(). The result being, styles defined (indirectly, in a way more convoluted way than vanilla CSS) in my theme.json file were appearing before the Bootstrap CSS file was loaded. And since I’m using the compiled Bootstrap instead of a custom npm build, there’s a bunch of “general” CSS it’s throwing in, including color and font definitions on the <body> tag that override Gutenberg’s earlier inline CSS.

Fortunately, someone else had the same problem and figured out a solution. But since, in 2022, spammers overrun any forum thread that’s left open too long, the thread was already locked and I couldn’t express my appreciation to the poster who shared it. So I’m writing this blog post instead.

The trick is to load any third-party CSS that you might need to override using a separate function called on the 'wp_enqueue_scripts' hook, with a low priority number (less than 10, since that’s the magic default).

Here’s a generalized version of the code I’m using:

function my_enqueue_scripts_early() {

    $ver = '1.0.0'; // Your theme version; could also be a class property, constant, global variable, etc.

    wp_enqueue_style('bootstrap-style', get_theme_file_uri('vendors/bootstrap/bootstrap.min.css'), array(), $ver);
    wp_enqueue_script('bootstrap', get_theme_file_uri('vendors/bootstrap/bootstrap.bundle.min.js'), array('jquery'), $ver);

}
add_action('wp_enqueue_scripts', 'my_enqueue_scripts_early', 8);

Get Gmail to scale inline images to fit the browser window (in Chrome and Safari)

If you use Gmail on the web as your main email platform, and your work often involves people sending you emails with large high-resolution images (which ideally would be attachments, but are often embedded inline in the message), you know this problem. The images are frigging huge in the browser window, and the viewing panel ends up with a horizontal scrollbar, with paragraph text trailing off the screen. Having to scroll horizontally to read emails is really awkward and irritating! Why doesn’t Gmail at least offer an option to auto-scale inline images to fit the width of the window?

I discovered there’s a Chrome extension to fix this. If you’re a Chrome user, just download it and you’re done.

But I don’t use Chrome, I use Safari. And there doesn’t appear to be an equivalent Safari extension. I did, however, continue down the trail to the CSS file in the GitHub project for that Chrome extension. The CSS is quite simple:

[data-message-id] > div:nth-child(2) img:not([role=button]):not([role=menu]):not([width]) {
max-width: 100%;
width: auto !important;
height: auto !important;
}

That’s all it takes to get Gmail to shrink inline images in an email to fit the window. But how do you get Safari to apply that CSS? This is not so hard, either.

First, save the above CSS code into a file, maybe called gmail.css so you’ll remember what it’s for, and save it somewhere that makes sense to you, such as your Documents folder.

Next, open the Safari preferences, and click on the Advanced tab.

Click on the Style sheet dropdown and navigate to the gmail.css file you saved. That’s it! If you have a Gmail message containing a huge image open in Safari while you’re doing this, you should immediately notice the image pop down to a reasonable size. Huzzah!

CSS text-transform can’t do “sentence case” but there’s a really simple alternative

Need to capitalize just the first letter of a text string? CSS text-transform has capitalize but that capitalizes every word.

Fortunately, you can use the ::first-letter pseudo element! In my case, I wanted all of the links in my navigation to definitely start with a capital letter, so I went with this:

#primary_navigation a::first-letter {
  text-transform: uppercase;
}

Slick!

Please, web font vendors, learn how to use CSS @font-face properly!

This has been bugging me for years and I can’t believe it’s still happening.

Being able to use custom fonts has been a huge boon to web design. And font hosting services like Typekit (sorry, I will never call it Adobe Fonts) and Google Fonts make using custom fonts easy.

But sometimes you still buy a font license that involves hosting the font files directly on your own server, and that’s where things get absolutely maddening because, for some reason, someone early on grossly misinterpreted how to use @font-face and that error has been perpetuated by countless unthinking others.

(Yes, I’m being harsh. But this is really not that complicated. And getting it right makes writing your CSS and HTML so much easier.)

Here’s an example of some font-specifying CSS you might receive from a font vendor:

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Regular';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
    }
.Font-Name-Regular {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Regular';
    }

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Regular';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular-Italic.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular-Italic.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
    font-style: italic;
    }
.Font-Name-Regular-Italic {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Regular';
    font-style: italic;
    }

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Bold';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
    }
.Font-Name-Bold {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Bold';
    }

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Bold';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold-Italic.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold-Italic.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
    font-style: italic;
    }
.Font-Name-Bold-Italic {
    font-family: 'Font-Name-Bold';
    font-style: italic;
    }

This is, in fact, the exact code I just received yesterday from a font vendor when I purchased a license, with the actual font name removed to protect the guilty innocent.

What’s so bad about this, you might ask? Aside from the conventions I dislike of indenting the closing } and using 4 spaces instead of tabs, there are two glaring problems with this:

  1. Because the font-family name defined for each weight and style is different, when you go to use this font, you need to specify the font-family every time you want to use bold or italics in your HTML, or at least use the custom CSS classes defined here. No! No no no! You should not have to apply a class to get bold or italics to render properly. The <strong> and <em> tags should do that on their own!
  2. Don’t f***ing define a bold font with font-weight: normal;! If you don’t realize from this, alone, that something is wrong with your approach, stop coding right now.

So, how should this be done, you ask?

Well, it’s simple. Each @font-face declaration has four properties. One is src: which tells the browser where to find the correct font file(s) for this face. The other three properties work together to define the context in which this particular src should be used: any time this combination of font-family, font-weight and font-style come together.

You can use the same font-family in different @font-face declarations as long as font-weight and font-style are different. In fact, you’re supposed to! That’s the way it’s designed to work!!!

When you do this properly, you don’t need any custom CSS classes. Try this on for size:

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
}

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular-Italic.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Regular-Italic.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: normal;
    font-style: italic;
}

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: bold;
}

@font-face {
    font-family: 'Font-Name';
    src: url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold-Italic.woff2') format('woff2'),
         url('Font-Name/Font-Name-Bold-Italic.woff') format('woff');
    font-weight: bold;
    font-style: italic;
}

Aside from the fact that this eliminates 1/3 of the lines of code, it also will make your HTML much cleaner and more properly separates content from styling.

Here’s an example of some HTML you might have to write using the first approach:

<p class="Font-Name-Regular">This is some regular text, which also
includes a bit of <em class="Font-Name-Regular-Italic">italics</em>
and even a dash of <strong class="Font-Name-Bold">bold</strong>.</p>

Now, granted, my version does require you to define the font-family for your <p> tags in your CSS file. But guess what… you’re supposed to do that! Put this in your CSS:

p { font-family: 'Font-Name'; }

With that in place, the proper HTML for the same appearance becomes this:

<p>This is some regular text, which also
includes a bit of <em>italics</em>
and even a dash of <strong>bold</strong>.</p>

So, again… when thinking about @font-face, just remember these two simple things:

  1. All @font-face declarations for the same font family should have the same font-family. (Seems kind of obvious when I put it that way, doesn’t it?)
  2. The value for font-weight should be the actual weight of the font. Only the “regular” weight should have font-weight: normal; or font-weight: 400;. If you’re using font-weight: normal; on a bold font, you’ve done something wrong.

This change makes for cleaner code, easier maintenance, and proper separation of content from design.

Addendum

Shortly after I posted this, I went back and looked at the unnamed font vendor’s sample page, because I knew it referenced “the @font-face standard since 2017”. I could not believe that this approach was actually a “standard,” so I tracked down the source, an article Bram Stein published on A List Apart in 2017 called Using Webfonts.

Guess what… Bram Stein’s examples do it the right way!

I do know one place where I’ve consistently seen this wrong way I’m railing against… it’s the code generated on FontSquirrel (no link, on principle) whenever you download a font. Other “web font generator” sites like FontSquirrel probably do it to. They’re all wrong… but Bram Stein isn’t. Don’t drag him down with this bad code!

Responsive horizontal scrolling tables for phones in CSS with no additional HTML

For some reason I always forget how to do this, and most tutorials out there suggest wrapping your table in a container <div> tag but as long as you’re using <tbody> (and, ideally, not using <thead> or <tfoot>) then it’s easy with a small bit of CSS and no HTML changes at all.

The trick is to display your <table> as a block, and your <tbody> as a table!

Here’s the code. Fit it into whichever breakpoint makes sense for your site. Mine shown here is the standard phone width breakpoint for WordPress (782 pixels):

@media screen and (max-width: 782px) {

  table {
    display: block;
    overflow-x: auto;
    width: 100%;
  }

  table tbody {
    display: table;
    width: auto;
  }

}

Of course, right after I posted this I found that I had already written about it two years ago with a slightly different solution. Never hurts to have a slightly different perspective.